• General 20.11.2012 Comments Off on Oxygen Corrosion

    This is a phenomenon that develops in metals especially iron and steel as these have to go back au natural state, which is in the form of oxide, so it can be said that the effort to avoid it is virtually against "nature", according to this fact so the only thing you can do is minimize the effects of it. Usually we hear the expression "has been or is rusting" in reality is not entirely accurate, but it reflects the above, the steel is forming oxides, the phenomenon is of such magnitude that organizations approach it as one of its main tasks maintenance and represents a very important item in the cost of this activity. The phenomenon itself has some origins from which we can specify the following: Oxygen Corrosion .- It is given with the aid of heat and pressure, is common in the generation and transmission systems and specifically steam in the condensate return lines by effects of free oxygen is in the air and water. Corrosion .- biological usually occurs in the submerged, as this condition favors the growth of life, and acts to the extent that some species produce sulfuric acid, which erodes the metal surface. Hot Corrosion .- Associated with the presence of vanadium and sodium is formed at temperatures above 700 C and causes a very strong erosion on the surface in contact with these elements, it is common in engines that run on Bunker or raw. Corrosion in Cold .- Produced primarily by Dissolved sulfur in fossil fuels, that with the presence of water vapor, sulfuric acid reacts causing sulfide, which erode metal surfaces, it is common practice to identify exhaust pipes destroyed by this type corrosion. .- Galvanic corrosion is given by the migration of electrons from an element called the anode, which is oxidized to another called cathode is reduced, so that this phenomenon is always necessary verified the presence of three components, the anode cathode and electrolyte or means of transmission, this is the way, more common, is corrosion and corrosion variants partial pressures and salt corrosion activity differently. It is clear that the rates mentioned here in any way show all types of corrosion, however, reflect the most common. The means of preventing or avoiding it are numerous and may involve actions ranging from the very design of the metal, its geometry, material type surface hardness, etc to the application of shielding the same, it is interesting to note that the most used, is, the same oxide layer that forms immediately to the bare surfaces, confining the moisture to the outside of it, as is the case of sodium oxide coating that forms in the material immediately after cutting, or opaque roof that appears on copper after machining, it is clad stainless steel with chromium and nickel oxides, which are very sticky that give protection However when oxide coating is not enough (usually because it is easily detached), gets used other protection, applying a protective film as anti-corrosive paint, or using other electro deposited metal (electroplating).

  • General 19.11.2012 Comments Off on Indonesia Options

    Novice is to choose Cyprus or Malta – visa country in the future Schengen open 'corridor', whereas even repeated crossing the borders of Egypt or Turkey unlikely to visit the heart of Europe. Age pairs with a rich life, and rather big tourist experience is, of course, to consider options for European countries to celebrate the 'silver' or 'gold' birthdays. A good solution for visa reasons and price will be old Prague and romantic Venice. Young is worth in the first place to consider exotic options: Maldives, Indonesia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Thailand, Islands of French Polynesia. Oddly, but especially popular wedding sea and river cruises, although their prices are twice as trips to the same destination. In cruise wedding options in demand European programs – with stops in Italy, Spain and France. By selecting a country, be prepared for surprises – study contract for a bonus service Suite, because if the tour operator will inform the receiving side of newlyweds, you would expect the sea of compliments. You can settle into a more expensive room at no additional cost, decorate it with fresh flowers and flower petals, to build on the wedding bed canopy of thin tulle or organza present from the hotel fruit basket and wine – the main thing not forget to take the marriage certificate. The number and amount of bonuses depends on the hotel category, the fantasies of host and season. In the five-star hotels must Champagne, fruit and flowers in room upon arrival, excursions, massage or SPA-procedures can be presented, but somewhat less.

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